如何安装配置Nginx配置?

Nginx

1 基础知识

1.1 Nginx的简介

Nginx是一个高性能的HTTP和反向代理web服务器
Nginx同时也提供IMAP/POP3/SMTP服务
Nginx有伊戈尔.赛索耶夫为俄罗斯访问量第二的Rambler.ru站点开发
Nginx第一个公开版本0.1。0发布于2004年10月4日

1.2 Nginx的优点

Nginx可在大多数Unix或Linux OS上编译运行(有Windows移植版)
Nginx是一个强大的高性能Web和反向代理服务
Nginx可以支持50,000并发链接响应(以epool and kqueue作为开发模型)
Nginx基于C语言从头开发并拥有自己的函数库(系统库只使用C函数库)

2 最佳实践

2.1 安装前的准备

2.1.1 系统环境

OS = CentOS 8.x x86_64
Host Name = any
IP Address = 10.168.0.80

2.1.2 安装常用工具

yum install -y vim

2.2 使用安装配置Nginx

2.2.1 安装Nginx

yum install -y nginx

2.2.2 启动Nginx服务

systemctl start nginx.service
systemctl enable nginx.service
systemctl status nginx.service

2.2.3 开启防火墙

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service http --add-service https
firewall-cmd --reload
firewall-cmd --list-all

2.2.4 关闭SElinux

sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
setenforce 0

2.2.5 配置Nginx

cp /etc/nginx/nginx.conf /etc/nginx/nginx.conf.default
vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

修改主配置如下,

user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;
events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}
http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;
    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;
    # Load modular configuration files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory.
    # See http://nginx.org/en/docs/ngx_core_module.html#include
    # for more information.
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
}

以上通过“include”关键字引入目录“/etc/nginx/conf.d”的配置文件,使用如下命令增加引入的配置文件(默认网站),

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

加入如下内容,

server {
    listen       80 default_server;
    listen       [::]:80 default_server;
    server_name  _;
    root         /usr/share/nginx/html;

    # Load configuration files for the default server block.
    include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;

    location / {
    }

    error_page 404 /404.html;
        location = /40x.html {
    }

    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
    }
}

以上创建的是http协议的默认站点,https默认站点使用如下命令配置,

vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/default_ssl.conf

加入如下内容,

server {
    listen       443 ssl http2 default_server;
    listen       [::]:443 ssl http2 default_server;
    server_name  _;
    root         /usr/share/nginx/html;

    ssl_certificate "/etc/nginx/server.crt";
    ssl_certificate_key "/etc/nginx/server.key";
    ssl_session_cache shared:SSL:1m;
    ssl_session_timeout  10m;
    ssl_ciphers PROFILE=SYSTEM;
    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;

    # Load configuration files for the default server block.
    include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;

    location / {
    }

    error_page 404 /404.html;
        location = /40x.html {
    }

    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
        location = /50x.html {
    }
}

基于调试的目的,可以临时使用本机的证书,可使用以下命令搜索本地的证书并复制到目标目录,

find /usr/ /etc/ -name \*server.crt\* -exec cp {} /etc/nginx/server.crt \;
find /usr/ /etc/ -name \*server.key\* -exec cp {} /etc/nginx/server.key \;

另外可以到以下链接申请一年免费证书,
https://console.cloud.tencent.com/ssl
配置完成后,我们建议你使用如下命令检查配置的语法,

nginx -t

配置完成后,你需要重启服务使配置生效,

systemctl restart nginx.service

2.2.6 测试默认站点的访问

http://10.168.0.80
https://10.168.0.80
可见如下显示,

参阅文档
===================
https://baike.baidu.com/item/nginx/3817705?fr=aladdin

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