如何熟悉Debian的常用操作?

Debian-Like

1 前言

为了一套监控系统,学习Debin系统,现分享笔记如下,给有需要的人。

2 实践部分

2.1 配置以太网

2.1.1 固定地址配置

vi /etc/network/interfaces

加入如下内容:

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
	address 10.168.0.143
	netmask 255.255.255.0
	gateway 10.168.0.1
        dns-nameservers 8.8.8.8 8.8.4.4
        dns-search cmdschool.org

重启服务使配置生效

/etc/init.d/networking restart

另外如果使用的是netplan,则IP按如下配置,

vim /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml

配置修改如下,

network:
    ethernets:
        ens160:
            addresses:
            - 10.168.0.143/24
            gateway4: 10.168.0.1
            nameservers:
                addresses:
                - 202.96.128.86
                - 202.96.128.166
    version: 2

另外,“gateway4”的声明在某些比较新的版本已经不适应,你可以按如下范例声明,

network:
    ethernets:
        ens160:
            addresses:
            - 10.168.0.143/24
            routes:
            - to: default
              via: 10.168.0.1
            nameservers:
                addresses:
                - 202.96.128.86
                - 202.96.128.166
    version: 2

可使用如下命令使配置生效,

netplan apply

配置完成后,可使用如下命令验证你的配置,

ip a
systemd-resolve --status

2.1.2 桥接配置

1)安装桥套件

aptitude install bridge-utils

2)创建桥接口

brctl addbr br0

注,删除请使用

 brctl delbr br0

3)配置桥

vim /etc/network/interfaces

输入如下配置:

auto br0
iface br0 inet static
        address 10.168.0.15
        netmask 255.255.255.0
        gateway 10.168.0.1
        bridge_ports eth0 eth1
        up /usr/sbin/brctl stp br0 on

4)重启服务使配置生效

/etc/init.d/networking restart

或者

ifconfig br0 up

2.2 配置DNS

vim /etc/resolvconf/resolv.conf.d/base

加入如下配置,

nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4

配置完成后,你需要重启服务是配置生效,

/etc/init.d/resolvconf restart

如果是debian 10我们建议禁用resolvconf服务,

systemctl disable systemd-resolved.service
systemctl stop systemd-resolved.service

然后配置直接写入resolv.conf文件,

vi /etc/resolv.conf

输入如下配置:

nameserver 8.8.8.8
nameserver 8.8.4.4

有的系统可能需要使用如下配置方案,

2.3 配置时区

timedatectl set-timezone Asia/Shanghai

2.4 配置主机名称

hostnamectl set-hostname xxx.cmdschool.org

以上命令如果无效,请按如下章节配置,

如何修改ubuntu的主机名称?

2.5 包管理

2.5.1 安装源配置

vi /etc/apt/sources.list

1)默认安装源全部注解(太慢):

#deb cdrom:[Debian GNU/Linux 7.11.0 _Wheezy_ - Official amd64 DVD Binary-1 20160605-17:36]/ wheezy contrib main
deb http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main contrib
deb-src http://security.debian.org/ wheezy/updates main contrib

说明:
– deb 定义二进制安装包
– deb-src 定义源代码安装包
– 参数二定义安装包的根URL
– 参数三定义套件名称,分发名称或套件名称
– 参数四定义有效规定区域名称列表
2)配置国内源(Debian7.11)

echo "deb https://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian/dists Debian7.11 main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list

3)配置国内源(Debian8.6)

echo "deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian Debian8.6 main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list

注:源地址的版本会有所变更,如升级到Debian8.x相应地址应该变更为(由于8.6源不保留)

echo "deb http://ftp2.cn.debian.org/debian Debian8.7 main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list
echo "deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian Debian8.7 main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list
echo "deb http://ftp2.cn.debian.org/debian Debian8.9 main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list
echo "deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian Debian8.9 main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/debian.list

4)以上执行完需要更新本地缓存

apt-get update

5)启用aptitude包安装工具(比较好用)

apt-get install aptitude
aptitude update

6)升级系统

aptitude upgrade

2.5.2 查询已经安装的包

dpkg -l
dpkg -l vim-common

2.5.3 搜索安装包

aptitude search samba
apt-cache search samba

2.5.4 安装软件包

aptitude install samba
apt-get install samba

2.5.5 删除软件包

aptitude remove samba
apt-get remove samba

2.5.6 更新当前系统软件包

apt-get upgrade

2.5.7 清理安装缓存

apt-get clean

2.5.8 升级系统

apt-get dist-upgrade

2.6 配置DHCP服务

2.6.1 安装DHCP服务

apt-get install isc-dhcp-server

2.6.2 修改主配置文件

cp /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server.default
vi /etc/default/isc-dhcp-server

配置参数如下:

DHCPD_CONF=/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
INTERFACES="eth0"

2.6.3 配置加载的子配置文件

cp /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf.default
vi /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

配置如下:

ddns-update-style none;
option domain-name "cmdschool.org";
option domain-name-servers 202.96.128.86,202.96.128.166;
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
log-facility local7;
subnet 10.168.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
  range 10.168.0.26 10.168.0.30;
  option routers 10.168.0.1;
  option broadcast-address 10.168.0.255;
  default-lease-time 600;
  max-lease-time 7200;
}

2.6.4 启动服务并配置默认启动

/etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server start
insserv isc-dhcp-server

另外,查询默认启动的程序请使用如下命令,

service --status-all

另外,维护服务请使用以下命令,详细使用请参阅帮助,

update-rc.d -h

2.7 安装桌面端

2.7.1 lxde桌面

Debian 7.x的安装
1)安装相关包

apt-get install lxde-core xinit xdm; apt-get install -f

2) 配置启动方式

echo 'exec startlxde' > ~/.xsession
update-alternatives --config x-session-manager

3) 配置分辨率

echo '@xrandr -s 1024x768' >> /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart

Debian 8.x的安装
1)安装相关包

aptitude install xinit slim lightdm
aptitude install --without-recommends lxde-core

2)配置启动方式

echo 'exec startlxde' > ~/.xinitrc
update-alternatives --config x-session-manager

2.7.2 kde桌面

1)完全安装

aptitude install kde-full

2.8 安装谷歌浏览器

Debian 7.x的安装
1)安装软件包

dpkg -i google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb;apt-get install -f

2)修改配置

vi /usr/bin/chromium-browser

找到如下行:

exec $LIBDIR/$APPNAME $CHROMIUM_FLAGS "$@"

替换为如下行:

exec $LIBDIR/$APPNAME $CHROMIUM_FLAGS "$@" --user-data-dir

Debian 8.x的安装
1)下载安装包
下载页面:
http://www.google.cn/chrome/browser/desktop/index.html
下载的命令:

wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb

2)启动安装

dpkg -i google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb;apt-get install -f

3)加载flash插件

cd ~
wget https://fpdownload.adobe.com/pub/flashplayer/pdc/25.0.0.127/flash_player_ppapi_linux.x86_64.tar.gz
tar -xf flash_player_ppapi_linux.x86_64.tar.gz
mkdir /opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash
cp libpepflashplayer.so manifest.json /opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash/
chmod -R 755 /opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash/

配置快捷方式加载flash插件

vim /usr/share/applications/google-chrome.desktop

将如下行:

Exec=/usr/bin/google-chrome-stable %U

修改为:

Exec=/usr/bin/google-chrome-stable %U --ppapi-flash-path=/opt/google/chrome/PepperFlash/libpepflashplayer.so

4)pepperflashlugin方式安装(失败几率高,不建议采用)

aptitude install pepperflashplugin-nonfree

2.9 火狐浏览器的安装

Debian 7.x的安装
1)配置安装源

echo "deb http://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/ubuntuzilla/mozilla/apt all main" | tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mozilla.list
apt-key adv --recv-keys --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com 2667CA5C

2)更新安装源

apt-get update

3)安装浏览器

apt-get install firefox-mozilla-build

Debian 8.x的安装

aptitude install firefox-esr

2.10 安装Teamviewar

2.10.1 下载安装包

wget https://downloadus2.teamviewer.com/download/version_12x/teamviewer_12.0.76279_amd64.deb

2.10.2 选择本地安装

dpkg -i teamviewer_12.0.76279_amd64.deb
apt-get install -f

下载页面:
https://community.teamviewer.com/t5/Knowledge-Base/How-do-I-install-TeamViewer-on-my-Linux-distribution/ta-p/4351

2.10.3 解决依赖关系

apt-get install teamviewer; apt-get -f install

2.10.4 查看帮助

teamviewer --help

2.11 中文支持

2.11.1 支持显示中文

apt-get install fonts-droid

2.11.2 界面中文化

aptitude install locales
dpkg-reconfigure locales

注:选择“zh_CN.UTF-8”即可

2.12 安装vim

apt-get install vim;apt-get install -f

2.13 防火墙配置

2.13.1 编写临时规则

vim /etc/iptables.test.rules

复制官方提供的模板并根据自己的需求修改

*filter

# Permette tutto il traffico su loopback (lo0) traffic e elimina tutto il traffico che non usa lo0 verso 127/8
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT ! -i lo -d 127.0.0.0/8 -j REJECT

# Accetta in entrata su tutte le connessioni stabilite
-A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

# Permette tutto il traffico in uscita
# Potrebbe essere modificato per permettero solo un certo tipo di traffico
-A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT

# Permette connessioni HTTP e HTTPS da qualsiasi parte provengano (le normali porte per i siti web)
-A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT

# Permette le connessioni SSH
# Il numero --dport e' lo stesso di quello in /etc/ssh/sshd_config
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

# Ora ci si dovrebbe informare sulle regole di iptables e considerare se l'accesso ssh
# per tutti sia realmente quello che si vuole. Molto probabilmente si preferisce 
# permettere l'accesso solo per alcuni IP.

# Permettere ping
# notare che bloccare altri tipi di pacchetti icmp è considerata da alcuni una cattiva idea
# rimuovere -m icmp --icmp-type 8 da questa riga per permettere tutti i tipi di icmp:
# https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/22711
-A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT

# registrare le chiamate negate di iptables (accesso via il comando 'dmesg')
-A INPUT -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables denied: " --log-level 7

# Respingere tutto il resto del traffico in entrata: politica del negare in modo predefinito quando non esplicitamente permesso
-A INPUT -j REJECT
-A FORWARD -j REJECT

COMMIT

2.13.2 导轨规则使之生效

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules

2.13.3 命令行确认规则生效

iptables -L

2.13.4 保存规则到主配置文件

iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules

2.13.5 配置开机自动加载

echo '#!/bin/sh' > /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables
echo '/sbin/iptables-restore' > /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables
chmod +x /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/iptables

2.14 路由转发配置

2.14.1 临时开启路由转发

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

2.14.2 永久开启路由转发

vim /etc/sysctl.conf

去掉此行的注解:

net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1

2.15 修改Crontab的默认编辑器

aptitude install vim
aptitude remove nano

2.16 配置时间

2.16.1 配置时区

cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime

2.16.2 时间同步

1)安装时间同步相关包

aptitude install chrony

2)同步时间

chronyc sources

2.16.3 手动配置时间

1)查询时间和日志

date

2)设置日期

date -s 12/15/2016 #mm/dd/yy

3)设置时间

date -s 10:05:30 #hh:mm:s

4)把时间写入BIOS

hwclock -w

2.17 配置花生壳域名解析

2.17.1 安装软件包

aptitude install curl

2.17.2 创建解析脚本

mkdir ~/script/
vim ~/script/pusoray.sh

输入如下配置(假设域名是cmdschool.org):

#!/bin/bash
domain="cmdschool.org"
user="username"
pwd="password"
/usr/bin/curl "http://$user:$pwd@ddns.oray.com/ph/update?hostname=$domain"

注:“.”的url编码是“%2e”

2.17.3 自动调用解析脚本

crontab -e

输入如下配置:

*/3 * * * * sh ~/script/pusoray.sh

2.18 配置VNC

2.18.1 安装软件包

aptitude install vnc4server

2.18.2 启动服务并修改密码

vnc4server -geometry 1024x768 -depth 24

2.18.3 修改配置文件

vim ~/.vnc/xstartup

修改配置如下:

#!/bin/sh

# Uncomment the following two lines for normal desktop:
# unset SESSION_MANAGER
exec /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc

[ -x /etc/vnc/xstartup ] && exec /etc/vnc/xstartup
[ -r $HOME/.Xresources ] && xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid grey
vncconfig -iconic &
x-terminal-emulator -geometry 80x24+10+10 -ls -title "$VNCDESKTOP Desktop" &
x-window-manager &

2.18.4 启动和结束

vnc4server :1
vnc4server -kill :1

2.18.5 配置启动服务

1)配置服务控制脚本

vim /etc/init.d/vnc4server

输入如下配置:

#! /bin/bash
export USER="root"
export PATH="/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/bin/X11"
start()
{
 su - $USER -c"vnc4server :1"
}
stop()
{
 su - $USER -c"vnc4server -clean -kill :1"
}
case "$1" in
 start)
  echo -n "Starting Xvnc: "
  start
  ;;
 stop)
  echo -n "Stopping Xvnc "
  stop
  ;;
 restart)
  echo -n "Restarting Xvnc "
  stop
  start
  ;;
 ****)
  echo "Usage: /etc/init.d/vnc4server {start|stop|restart}"
  ;;
esac
exit 0

注意:USER可设置为普通用户
2)配置启动脚本权限

chmod a+x /etc/init.d/vnc4server

3)配置脚本自动启动

insserv vnc4server

4)测试服务脚本

/etc/init.d/vncserver start
/etc/init.d/vncserver restart
/etc/init.d/vncserver stop

2.19 配置WiFi

2.19.1 安装WiFi管理工具

aptitude install wireless-tools

2.20 桌面办公软件

2.20.1 安装Libreoffice

aptitude install libreoffice

2.20.2 中文输入法

aptitude install ibus ibus-sunpinyin ibus-table-wubi

然后使用菜单配置:

Activities->Applications->Settings->IBus Preferences->Input Method->Add->Chinese->SunPinyin

2.21 电源管理

2.21.1 合上笔记本盖子不待机

vim /etc/systemd/logind.conf

修改如下参数

HandleLidSwitch=ignore

重启服务

systemctl restart systemd-logind.service

===========================================
官方文档:
https://www.debian.org/
下载地址:
https://www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp/
http://cdimage.debian.org/cdimage/archive/

Debian源地址:
https://www.debian.org/mirror/list

wiki:
https://wiki.debian.org/zh_CN/FrontPage?action=show&redirect=%E9%A6%96%E9%A1%B5
安装手册:
https://wiki.debian.org/zh_CN/QuickInstall
https://www.debian.org/releases/stable/amd64/index.html.zh-cn

网路配置:
https://wiki.debian.org/NetworkConfiguration

官方包更新方法:
http://security.debian.org/

包使用方法:
https://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/debian-reference/ch02.en.html#_literal_apt_get_literal_literal_apt_cache_literal_vs_literal_aptitude_literal

桌面端的安装:
https://wiki.lxde.org/en/Debian
https://wiki.debian.org/LXDE

火狐浏览器的安装源:
https://sourceforge.net/projects/ubuntuzilla/files/apt/dists/all/main/
火狐浏览器的安装方法:
https://sourceforge.net/p/ubuntuzilla/wiki/Main_Page/

chrome安装方法(需要翻墙)
https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/1649523?hl=en

Teamviewer安装说明:
https://www.teamviewer.com/zhcn/help/363-How-do-I-install-TeamViewer-on-my-Linux-distribution.aspx

iptables配置
https://wiki.debian.org/it/iptables

openvpn配置:
https://wiki.debian.org/openvpn%20for%20server%20and%20client

vnc4server
http://www.debianhelp.co.uk/vnc.htm

非官方参阅:
包管理的使用
http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-25672683-id-2940667.html
http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-20769502-id-106056.html

防火墙iptables的使用
http://blog.slogra.com/post-232.html

关于硬件:
http://www.cnblogs.com/kuliuheng/p/4184521.html

flash install
https://wiki.debian.org/Flash
https://wiki.debian.org/FlashPlayer
https://wiki.debian.org/PepperFlashPlayer/Installing

flash download
http://www.adobe.com/software/flash/about/

WiFi Tools
https://wiki.debian.org/WiFi/

TigerVNC
https://packages.debian.org/jessie/ssvnc
http://vnc.devloop.org.uk/

Debian版本
https://www.debian.org/releases/

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